The final word VIPER structure tutorial

The final word VIPER structure tutorial

Discover ways to write scalable iOS code utilizing the VIPER structure with some MVVM and MVC tips and coordinators in thoughts.


Swift design patterns and iOS architectures

A software program design sample is mainly a generic template of the way to clear up a specific – however often native – state of affairs. Achitectural patterns have greater impression on the entire codebase, they’re excessive stage generic templates. Please bear in mind one factor:

there isn’t a such factor as a nasty structure

The weapon of choise solely relies on the state of affairs, however every thing is relative. Let’s stroll by way of all of the iOS design patterns and architectures actual fast and begin studying VIPER. 🐍

Swift design patterns

Let’s begin with the fundamentals, proper? If we do not get into UIKit, we will discover that there are a lot of design patterns invented, perhaps a few of them already. However hey, since we do not have that a lot time and I would like to speak about VIPER, let’s try the essential precept of constructing UIKit apps utilizing the MVC sample.


The Mannequin-View-Controller (Large-View-Controller) sample is a primary idea. You’ve got often an enormous UIViewController subclass that controls all of the views and collects each mannequin that wanted to be displayed for the top consumer. For instance you name an API endpoint utilizing URLSession or Alamofire from the controller, do the response information validation and formatting then you definitely implement your desk or assortment view delegates on the view controller, so mainly all the applying logic goes inside that single overstuffed depressing view controller class. Does this ring a bell for you? 🙄


After realizing the issue, the very first thing that you are able to do is outsourcing the information reworking or binding half to a sepearate class. That is how the sensible individuals at Miscrosoft invented the Mannequin-View-ViewModel structure sample. Now you are one step nearer, your information fashions and the views can have their “get collectively” on an entire new stage inside shiny new information far-far away from controller land. Nonetheless this sample won’t clear up all of the leftovers contained in the view controller. Do not forget that you continue to need to feed the view controller with information, deal with all of the completely different states.


What if we transfer out all the information loading and presentation stuff from the view controller and put it into a brand new class magically referred to as the Presenter? Sounds good, the view controller can personal the brand new presenter occasion and we will dwell fortunately ever after. C’mon individuals we must always actually rename this to the Most Invaluable Sample ever! 😉

The Coordinator sample

Say whats up to The coordinator by Soroush Khanlou. Or ought to I merely name this because the Inverse Mannequin View Presenter sample? Look, right here is the deal, coordinators are on an entire new stage within this evolution progress, however additionally they have an excessive amount of to do. It is towards the Single Accountability precept, as a result of now it’s important to handle the presentation context, the information storage, the routing and all of the differnet states inside coordinators or sub-coordinators… however, lastly your view controller is free from all of the leftover baggage and it may well focus instantly on it is job, which is? 🙃

To be fucking dumb.

Presenting views utilizing UIKit associated stuff, and forwarding occasions.

I do not hate the design patters from above, I am simply merely making an attempt to level out (in a humorous / sarcastic means) why VIPER was born on the primary place. 😅

Are you continue to with me? 😬

The VIPER structure

Initially DO NOT consider that VIPER is dangerous, simply because somebody misused it. I feel it is a freaking superb structure! You simply need to study it correctly, which is difficult, due to the shortage of fine tutorials. Everyone seems to be evaluating architectures, however that is not what individuals ought to do. So far as I can see, an MVP is nice for a small app with a couple of screens, you need to by no means use VIPER for these apps. The true drawback begins in case you app grows and increasingly more elements get into the sport.

In case you are planning to write down a small app, simply begin with MVC. In a while you possibly can repair the large view controller drawback with MVVM, however if you wish to take it one stage additional you possibly can at all times use MVP or the coordinator sample to maintain maintainability. Which is totally wonderful, till you understand someday that your code is full of utility courses, managers, handlers and all of the nonsense objects. Sounds acquainted? 😅

As I discussed this earlier than there isn’t a such factor as a nasty structure. There are solely dangerous selections, which lead us to hardly maintainable codebases. So let me information you thru probably the most helpful design sample that you’re going to ever wish to know with the intention to write truely scalable iOS purposes: VIPER with module builders = VIPER(B)

Understanding VIPER

The VIPER structure is predicated on the only accountability precept (S.O.L.I.D.)) which leads us to the idea of a clear structure. The core elements or for instance layers of a VIPERB module are the next ones:


It is the interface layer, which suggests UIKit information, largely UIViewController subclasses and all the opposite stuff. Views do not do something that is associated to enterprise logic, the’re only a presentation and occasion forwarding layer which is utilized by the presenter. As a result of the view is only a pure view controller, you should use MVVM rules or information managers to make your challenge much more concise.


The interactor is chargeable for retrieving information from the mannequin layer, and its implementation is totally unbiased of the consumer interface. It is necessary to do not forget that information managers (community, database, sensor) usually are not a part of VIPER, so they’re handled as separate elements (companies), coming exterior from the VIPER module land and they are often injected as dependencies for interactors.

The Interactor can put together or rework information, that is coming from the service layer. For instance it may well do some sorting or filtering earlier than asking the correct community service implementation to request or save the information. However do not forget that the Interactor doesn’t know the view, so it has no thought how the information needs to be ready for the view, that is the position of the Presenter. 🙄


UIKit unbiased class that prepares the information within the format required by the view and take selections primarily based on UI occasions from the view, that is why typically it is referred as an occasion handler. It is the core class of a VIPER module, as a result of it additionally communicates with the Interactor and calls the router for wire-framing (aka. to current a brand new module or dismiss the present one).

It is the one class that communicates with nearly all the opposite elements. That is the ONLY job of the presenter, so it shouldn’t know something about UIKit or low stage information fashions. Principally it is the guts of the applying, or some would say it is the place the place all of the enterprise logic will get applied. 💜


Plain mannequin courses used largely by the interactor. Normally I am defining them exterior the VIPER module construction (within the service layer), as a result of these entities are shared throughout the system. We may separate them by module, however often I do not like that method as a result of eg. all of the CoreData fashions will be generated into one place. Identical factor applies if you’re utilizing Swagger or the same software.


The navigation logic of the applying utilizing UIKit courses. For instance if you’re utilizing the identical iPhone views in a iPad utility, the one factor which may change is how the router builds up the construction. This lets you maintain every thing else, however the Router untouched. It additionally listens for navigation move modifications from the presenter, so it will show the correct display if wanted. Additionally if you could open an exterior URL name UIApplication.shared.openURL(url) contained in the Router as a result of that is additionally a routing motion, the identical logic applies for social media sharing utilizing UIActivityViewController.

Additionally if it’s important to move information between VIPER modules it appears like a proper place to do that within the router. I often talk between two module utilizing a delegate sample, so I picked up this behavior of calling delegate capabilities within the router. 📲


Some persons are utilizing the router to construct the entire module, however I do not like that method. That is why I am at all times utilizing a separate module builder class. It is solely accountability is to construct the whole module through the use of dependency injection for all of the extenal companies. It could additionally construct mock or different variations of the identical module. That is fairly useful if it involves unit testing. Completely is smart. 👍

NOT every thing is a VIPER module

For instance if you wish to create a generic subclass from a UIViewWhatever please do not attempt to stuff that into the elements above. You must create a spot exterior your VIPER modules folder and put it there. There shall be some use instances with particular courses which can be higher to not be VIPERized! 😉

Providers and utility particular code

I often have 3 separate layers in my purposes. Modules, companies, and app. All of the VIPER modules are sitting contained in the Modules folder. All the things that is community or information associated goes to the Providers folder (api service, core information service, location service, and so forth.) and afterward will get used within the module builder relying the present surroundings (for instance mock implementation for testing). All of the remaining stuff like view subclassess, and different UI associated objects, app particular styling or design clever issues are positioned contained in the App listing.

write VIPER code?

I am unable to emphase sufficient how necessary is to study this structure earlier than you begin utilizing it. I consider that issues can go actual dangerous if somebody misunderstands VIPER and begin placing view logic in a presenter for instance. If you happen to had a earlier dangerous expertise with VIPER, take into consideration this quote: do not blame the software, blame the carpenter (simply as Ilya Puchka properly stated on a twitter dialog). 🔨

Each single element will simply get into the proper place in case you observe the foundations of VIPER.

Module era

By no means begin to create a VIPER module by hand, you need to at all times use a code generator, as a result of (sadly) you may want a lot of boilerplate code for every module. That appears fairly unlucky at first sight, however that is what provides the true energy of this structure. All members of your developer crew will know the place to search for if a selected concern happens. If it is a view concern, it’s important to repair the view, if it involves a navigation drawback then it is a router drawback.

There are lots of current code generator options (one of many famoust is generamba), however I made my very own little Swift software for producing VIPER modules. It is fairly rattling light-weight, however it’s actually heplful (it makes use of templates with the intention to generate a brand new module) i am calling it: VIPERA. (Hungarian title of the viper snake… haha 😂)

You simply need to clone / obtain the repository & run swift run set up --with-templates with the intention to make it work. Any more you possibly can merely run vipera MyModule to generate a brand new module primarily based on the default template. As a second argument you possibly can move your individual template listing title (you possibly can create your individual template beneath the ~/.vipera folder, or you possibly can change the default one too).

The anatomy of the bottom template is fairly easy, I am not creating subfolders for every layer, however I am separating the interfaces and the default implementation elsewhere. That offers me a bit of little bit of sanity, as a result of a lot of the VIPER templates appeared to be very deterrent simply due to the challenge construction.

Naming conventions

Protocols are outlined for nearly each VIPER element. Each protocol shall be prefixed with the module title, and it will not have another suffix besides from the layer title (like MyModuleRouter, MyModulePresenter).

Default implementation is used for the essential state of affairs, each protocol implementation follows the ModuleName+Default+Layer naming conference. So for instance MyModuleDefaultRouter or MyModuleDefaultPresenter.

Inter-module communication utilizing delegates

The move is one thing like this:

Router / Presenter

The presenter can ship occasions for the router utilizing the router protocol definition.

Presenter / Interactor

The interactor can notify the presenter by way of the presenter’s interface, and the presenter can name the interactor utilizing the outlined strategies contained in the interactor protocol.

Presenter / View

The view often has setter strategies to replace it is contents outlined on the view protocol. It could additionally notify the presenter of incoming or load occasions by way of the presenter protocol.

Knowledge switch between modules

Think about a listing, you choose an merchandise and go to a brand new controller scene. You need to move at the very least a singular indentifier between VIPER modules to make this doable.

It is often carried out considerably like this:

  • The view calls the didSelect methodology on the presenter with the id
  • The presenter forwards the id to the router utilizing the routeFor(id) methodology
  • The router calls the builder to construct a brand new module utilizing the id
  • The builder builds the brand new module utilizing the id
  • The router presents the brand new module utilizing it is view (controller)
  • The brand new module passes the id for everybody who wants it (router, presenter)
  • The brand new module’s presenter will get the id
  • The brand new module’s interactor masses the information and offers it for the presenter
  • The brand new module’s presenter provides the information for the view and presents it
  • Element display seems with correct information.

In case you are presenting a controller modally you can too move the unique router as a delegate, so you can shut it correctly if it is wanted. 😎

Reminiscence administration

Lengthy story quick:

  • The builder holds noone.
  • The router retains a weak reference of the view and the presenter.
  • The presenter holds the router and the interactor strongly
  • The interactor retains a weak refernece of the presenter
  • The view retains a robust refernece of the presenter
  • UIKit holds the views.

You must verify this within the offered instance, no leaks – I hope so – every thing will get launched good and easily after you return or dismiss a module. 🤞

Ultimate conclusion: ought to I study VIPER?

Though VIPER is very criticized due to it is complexity, all I can say it is definitely worth the effort to study its priciples correctly. You may see that there are far more advantages of utilizing VIPER as an alternative of ignoring it.


  • Simplicity – for big groups on complicated tasks
  • Scalability – simultaneous work seamlessly
  • Reusability – decoupled app elements primarily based on roles
  • Consistency – module skeletons, separation of considerations
  • Readability – Single obligations (SOLID)
  • Testability – separated small courses, TDD, higher code protection
  • Interfaces – module independence, properly outlined scopes
  • Bug fixing – simpler to trace points, find bugs and issues
  • Supply management – smaller information, much less conflicts, cleaner code
  • Simple – codebase appears comparable, sooner to learn others work


  • Verbosity – many information per module
  • Complexity – many protocols and delegates
  • On-boarding – lack of correct VIPER information
  • Engagement – VIPER is dangerous, as a result of it is complicated, meh!

I made a follow-up article about VIPER greatest practices that I’ve study alongside the journey, yow will discover the pattern repository on github. I hope that these tutorials will assist you to to study this structure higher, in case you have any questions, be happy to contact me on twitter. 👨‍💻


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